Have Freud's arguments been refuted? © Getty Images

Have Freud’s theories been largely refuted?

Many ideas from the Austrian 'father of psychoanalysis' are shrouded in controversy - but are there any theories that modern psychologists agree on?

Asked by: Rich Khanna, by email

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Some of the most controversial ideas of the Austrian ‘father of psychoanalysis’, such as sexuality being the root of neuroses and the interpretation of dreams, haven’t fared well. But, some of his other claims – such as the idea that ‘Freudian slips’ can give away what people are thinking unconsciously – do seem to be right. And overall, few psychologists would deny Freud was right to emphasise there’s far more going on in our heads than we think.


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