Cancer is currently one of the leading causes of death in the western world, largely due to its difficulty to detect and even greater difficulty to cure. The effects of cancer are uncontrolled cell growth (tumours) in areas of the body, and this growth is both unsustainable and damaging to the organs. The leading causes of cancer include smoking, obesity and infection. Research into how we can control this terrible illness is constantly being conducted, especially into the causes and effects of cancer at a genetic level.

The do-nothing dilemma

When Judy Refuerzo heard the word ‘carcinoma’, she began considering her treatment options. But two years on, she’s chosen surveillance over surgery. Was she right to? Charlotte Huff meets her and other so-called watchful waiters.

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