Who deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphs?

The important scientists and thinkers who worked out the meaning and structure of the Ancient Egyptians' hieroglyphic language.

1

Silvestre de Sacy (1758-1838)

Silvestre de Sacy © Public domain
Silvestre de Sacy © Public domain

Silvestre de Sacy was a professor at the Special School of Oriental Languages in Paris, where he became the most influential teacher of Jean-François Champollion.

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He attempted to decipher the Rosetta Stone without success but his proposal that the Stone’s hieroglyphic cartouches might be written in an alphabet proved important.

Read more about hieroglyphs:

2

Johann Åkerblad (1763-1819)

Akerblad copy
Johan Åkerblad’s table of Demotic phonetic characters and their Coptic equivalents (1802) © Public domain

Johann Åkerblad was a Swedish diplomat and student of de Sacy.

He compared the Egyptian demotic and the Greek inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone, and concluded that demotic appeared to be an alphabet like Greek. Although this was not so, he correctly identified certain names and words in demotic as alphabetic.

3

Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)

French mathematician and physicist Joseph Fourier © Getty Images
French mathematician and physicist Joseph Fourier © Getty Images

Fourier was a French mathematician famous for his analysis of heat.

He accompanied Napoleon Bonaparte on his invasion of Egypt and returned to France with a collection of antiquities that inspired the young Champollion to investigate the Egyptian language.

4

Thomas Young (1773-1829)

Thomas_Young_by_Briggs
Thomas Young © Public domain

Thomas Young was an English polymath who practised as a physician in London and is known for his interference of light experiment as well as for his linguistics.

He built on the ideas of de Sacy and Åkerblad, realised that demotic was derived from hieroglyphic and deduced a hieroglyphic ‘alphabet’ that proved partially correct.


5

Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832)

Jean-François Champollion © Wikimedia Commons
Jean-François Champollion © Wikimedia Commons

Champollion studied Egyptian scripts from his teenage years in Grenoble.

He rejected his English rival Young’s ‘alphabet’ until 1822, when new evidence from Egypt led to his breakthrough discovery: that the hieroglyphic and demotic scripts are a complex mixture of phonetic and non-phonetic signs.

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